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Old 03-14-2008, 01:07 PM
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Thyroid dysfunction and seizures


A topic came up yesterday, so I decided to put out a bit of a search. I didn't spend a lot of time, but there seems to be a connection here between Thyroid and Seizures. Loads of information in the Veterinary world, and some speculation in our world of medicine. It appears that it isn't easy to test, but could be a part of the hormonal dysfunction, and should in the very least be considered.

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Behavioral changes are one of the most undesirable consequences of thyroid dysfunction in dogs. And unfortunately, in North America, the primary reason for pet euthanasia stems from undesirable behavior rather than disease. Often, these changes are related to thyroid dysfunction. Researchers at Tufts University report that 77 percent of the dogs with seizure disorders that they studied had thyroid dysfunction. In addition, the major behavioral changes reported in dogs withy thyroid dysfunction included aggression, seizures, fearfulness and hyperactivity with some dogs exhibiting more than one of these behaviors.
http://autoimmunedisease.suite101.co...anine_epilepsy


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: Our results support that (1) altered lipid metabolism might be associated but not solely influenced by thyroid hormones and (2) enzyme induction is not the main or only reason for altered thyroid function or HDL-c among patients with epilepsy. Hypothalamic/pituitary dysregulation by precisely mechanism caused by epilepsy itself or anti-epileptic drugs seems possible and (3) it is important to recognize that patients with epilepsy are at great risk for atherosclerosis, hence monitoring and correction of the culprit risks are mandatory.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...07af3a499ad566

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What are common causes of seizures?

Examples of risk factors in people who do not have epilepsy are:

* Disturbed levels of body water/electrolytes (mostly sodium, calcium, or magnesium)
* Disturbed levels of blood glucose (sugar)
o Can result in seizures in some people who have severe hypoglycemia
* Reduced oxygen to the brain
o Seizures can result from a heart attack, head injury, or stroke
* Raised body temperature
* Altered sleep patterns
o Seizures can occur at particular times during the sleep cycle in those with epilepsy
* Disturbed hormones
o Seizures can be a symptom of thyroid problems. Correcting a thyroid imbalance can stop the seizures
* Toxicity

o Seizures can occur as part of a toxic reaction
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ABSTRACT

We report the first case of an autoimmune thyroid encephalopathy presenting with multifocal motor status epilepticus. A 37-year-old female patient was admitted with multifocal motor seizures intractable to intravenous status epilepticus treatments, asymmetrical quadriparesis, truncal ataxia and continuous semi-rhythmical jerks. Pathological signal alterations were detected in both precentral cortices in MRI examination. Autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed after radiological examinations of the thyroid gland and thyroid function tests. Seizures promptly ceased following intravenous steroid treatment. Immunohistochemistry studies showed mild to moderate neuronal staining with the plasma and CSF samples. Remarkably, autoimmune thyroiditis may present with migrating focal motor status epilepticus. We recommend anti-thyroid antibody screening for multifocal motor status epilepticus cases of unspecified cause.
http://www.ecnsweb.com/journal/jul06.html#7
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Old 03-14-2008, 02:19 PM
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Hypothyroidism is the most common reason I have found that dogs do not respond to dietary management of their seizures. I have now had a significant number of epileptic dogs that showed good improvement on the elimination diet (gluten, dairy, soy,corn) but that continued to have regular seizures until we diagnosed their hypothyroidism. Once we got them onto an effective thyroid supplement, most of these stopped seizing or at least had dramatic reductions in their seizure frequency and intensity. Hypothyroidism clearly lowers the seizure (and pain) threshold of individuals. And many food intolerants (e.g. celiacs) are hypothyroid, both from the malabsorption of iodine by their diseased duodenum and the immune assault on their thyroid gland, the latter being set up by the presence of the lectins of gluten and the viral flare-up that accompanies that challenge. (Google "virus, thyroid").

The other common condition that limits the successful treatment of epilepsy with diet (or drugs for that matter) is liver disease. This makes sense as the liver does soooo many things, including the conversion of glutamate to glutamine, the neurologically inactive form of this neuroactive amino acid and "excitotoxin" from which they make MSG, a known neurotoxin and seizure trigger.

The liver also converts the essential sugar glucosamine to sialic acid (neuraminic acid), the latter being crucial to the health of the brain. I would suggest that you all read about essential sugars and consider their role in everyone's health, including epileptic and autistic individuals. I am about to start informally exploring their use in the epileptic by recommending glucosamine to those clients whose dogs have not completely stopped seizing. We know how glucosmine works in joint disease now...by blocking the attachment of the damaging lectins (e.g. from gluten, dairy, soy and corn). The good news is that we are seeing glucosamine work in OTHER areas of the body, which it should since these lectins are bombarding every tissue and causing problems in the sensitized individual. Think of glucosamine as a "scavenger" of these lectins, attaching to them and carrying them away thereby preventing the damage they would normally do. How cool is that?

Hope this helps,

John
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Old 03-14-2008, 02:41 PM
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You are the best Dr John. Thank you!
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Old 03-14-2008, 08:52 PM
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Hmmmm....well, now I'm wondering if there's a connection between my hypothyroidism and epilepsy.
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Old 03-15-2008, 12:53 AM
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I'm thinkin' that it would be a good place to do some detective work.
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Old 03-15-2008, 01:06 AM
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Originally Posted by skillefer View Post:
Hmmmm....well, now I'm wondering if there's a connection between my hypothyroidism and epilepsy.


Yes there are ...

There are quite a few articles, journals,
publications - from Epilepsia to PubMed
to Blackwell-Synergy to etc ... out there
on this subject.
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Old 03-17-2008, 01:14 PM
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I think I'll ask my neurologist to order a complete thyroid blood work as well as med level bloodwork on Thursday. It's been about a year or two since my last thyroid level bloodwork, and the one my reg. doc ordered was just the quick screen.
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Old 03-17-2008, 02:51 PM
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Originally Posted by skillefer View Post:
Hmmmm....well, now I'm wondering if there's a connection between my hypothyroidism and epilepsy.
There probably is. I've always heard that metabolic disorders can cause seizures. Usually the first thing my neuros have checked were my thyroid. I'm almost positive I have some kind of malfunction that's not being detected on routine tests. For the past 10 years, every once in awhile my T4 comes up elevated, but when they retest it will be normal again. My primary care doc says it's nothing to worry about, but I still think something's up.
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Old 03-18-2008, 09:48 AM
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Hypothyroidism is an under-diagnosed condition in both veterinary and human medicine. There are lots of gray areas, partly due to the fact that thyroiditis is a remitting-relapsing disease like so many other immune-mediated diseases. You can be normal on one test and your results can be in the basement on another. The thyroid glands are very resilient and can bounce back from insults (e.g. Hashimoto's thyroiditis) but will ultimately succumb if the underlying cause is not addressed.

The role of lectins (e.g. antibody-sized proteins/glycoproteins from gluten, dairy, corn and SOY) is well-established. After all of my reading, I believe that thyroid disease is like so many other immune-mediated ("autoimmune") diseases in which an underlying VIRAL response to the insults being thrown at the various tissues is the true pathomechanism for the development of the condition. In other words, viruses in the cell (some of which are embedded in our very DNA) react to the challenge by lectin attachment or by chemicals/"carcinogens" and induce either hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) OR hyperthyroidism (Graves disease).

Interestingly, dogs ONLY develop hypothyroidism except in the rare case of a thyroid carcinoma. Cats ONLY develop hyperthyroidism and many of them actually develop a thyroid tumor, which makes sense due to the fact that viruses cause tumors/cancer. Humans on the other hand develop BOTH. (This is really interesting when we consider that many of the viruses we acquire that causes disease originally came from animals and that animals do not share each others viruses in most cases.)

Put "virus, thyroid" in your search engine and you will see what researchers know and believe. Interesting.

But, not all thyroid illness is from immune-mediated disease. A study in dogs done by a colleague of mine showed something important. He took a large group of dogs that were clinically hypothyroid and had low thyroid lab tests to match and treated them all with kelp, a good natural source of iodine. One third of them recovered both clinically and in their lab values without any formal thyroid hormone supplement. This fits with what I have come to see and speaks to the malabsorption syndrome being induced by the "big 4" foods...gluten, dairy, soy and corn...with iodine being one of the nutrients that is normally absorbed by the duodenum but that is NOT being absorbed properly due to the villous atrophy caused by these foods.

In most cases, it would be a combination of these two factors...malabsorption of iodine and a true immune reaction in the thyroid gland. Celiacs (gluten intolerants) have a 40-50 times higher rate of Hashimoto's and Graves, with the latter being a BIG red flag to indicate the need for celiac testing. But, SOY is a major goitrogen and is now driving the rates of thyroid disease through the roof. Google "soy, thyroid" and you'll be amazed.

There are numerous tests available for thyroid function. Sadly, most vets and MDs do the minimal tests. One of the best test panels includes all of the thyroid hormones (T4, free T4, T3, Free T3), TSH, and thyroid autoantibodies. The latter help to determine whether the individual is forming antibodies to their thyroid hormones. TSH has been a horribly over-used and unreliable determinant of thyroid health. For example, we now know that the classic situation of high TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone released by the pituitary gland) is NOT always present in hypothyroidism. In some cases, low thyroid function is due to low production of TSH by the pituitary gland. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism is usually more cut and dried, with the results predictably matching symptoms.

Bottom line? Read between the lines when thyroid testing is done. There is a lot of controversy surrounding the lab's normal ranges in both veterinary and human medicine. Many of us believe that the low end of normal (e.g. T4, free T4 and T3) is too low. If corrected, this would potentially change the diagnosis in a large number of cases. I am thoroughly convinced that there are many individuals out there who need thyroid medications that simply can't get diagnosed properly (Google "Edna Kyrie" of www.thyroidresearch.com )

So, ask for your results and check them against the normals. If you think you could be hypothyroid, interpret the results accordingly. If you are in the gray range (low end of normal), you may very well be hypothyroid. We now know in veterinary medicine that a thyroid supplement trial in these gray cases is NOT a harmful thing to do. We used to think that giving thyroid meds to an individual who didn't need them would do irreversible harm to the thyroid glands. We now know (mainly from our recent experience with the meteoric rise in hyperthyroidism in cats...due to wheat and soy in their diets) that the thyroid glands are MUCH more resilient than that. In fact, they are amazingly so which actually gets a bit frustrating when dealing with hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid illness is very common and we need really to use our brains when dealing with it. And as we've stated, it is also a big player in non-responsive epilepsy as well as in pain perception and immune competence.

I hope this helps,

John
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Last edited by DogtorJ; 03-18-2008 at 09:51 AM.
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Old 03-18-2008, 10:11 AM
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Wow John! Thank you! I'm going to the neurologist on Thursday and will ask for the full panel lab for my thyroid as well. The only way they ever figured out I was hypothyroid was because a dietician had me check my temp before getting out of bed for 7 days in a row. Otherwise, my panel came back normal. At the low end of normal, but normal. But I wouldn't let it go...because I knew there was something wrong. Again, thank you. Also, I'll try cutting back on the wheat and dairy. (Lactose intolerant, but I like having a cup of warm milk before I go to bed.....go firgure. ) That, and I'll try going back to eating seaweed. It can't hurt right? Anyway, I grew up on it....so it's not like it's a huge dietary shift. Anyway, thanks again for the info.
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Old 03-27-2008, 07:41 PM
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An interesting blog on thyroid:

http://www.ultrawellness.com/blog/thyroid-II
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Old 06-10-2008, 10:32 AM
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I've had epilepsy for 28 years now, and also have hypothyroidism. I believe that hypothyroidism is a side effect of some of the anti-epileptic drugs. In addition, I also have Type 1 diabetes, brought on by another medication for depression. The dr. initially diagnosed me as bipolar when I was going thru a depression from an anti-epileptic drug.
BTW, I've posted messages on other epilepsy websites with a different screen name, but I like this one the best because of the openness of everyone. I've had brain surgery, VNS surgery, etc. so I know what a lot of you are talking about.
Cindy Thacher
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Old 06-10-2008, 10:42 AM
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Hi Cindy! Welcome to CWE. It's amazing how the meds that are supposed to help us can mess us up, isn't it?
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Old 06-10-2008, 10:52 AM
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Welcome Cindy
I am going to be interested in hearing more of what you have learned through your journey.

I am sure that the anti-epileptic drugs can cause disfunction in ones thyroid, but I also have been reading how heavy metals and toxins can do the same. In addition I would guess that improper nutritional choices would also play a part. I have been supplementing my daughter with Selenium and Adrenal Cortex as part of our daily routine. I am considering chelation this summer, and I want to make sure that her adrenal glands are supported first. Making sure her liver is also healthy before beginning this is important too.
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Old 06-18-2008, 09:54 AM
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More great information on thyroid, adrenal gland, diet, etc from this website:

http://www.womentowomen.com/hypothyr...menopause.aspx
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Old 06-23-2008, 09:18 AM
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http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art24279.asp
http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art57366.asp
http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art56978.asp
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/p...neuropathy.htm
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/67/5/786
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...the most important thing is to tell your doctor about any unresolved symptoms you're having and to also search/research online, about conditions that might be responsible. This helps you discuss possible testing needed, with your doctor. Despite what some believe, many doctors like this type of cooperative input by their patients and may help them to zero in on the cause of the unresolved symptoms you are experiencing.
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Old 03-19-2010, 08:39 PM
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thyroid and seizures


I'm sure glad I found this forum. I have been doing research on the connection between your thyroid and seizures. I had seizures for the last 15 years. I've taken tegretal, dilantin, depakote, keppra, zonegran and am currently on Lamactol 700MG a day. The meds help but do not control it completely. What got me started thinking it may be caused from my thyroid is because of the way the seizures are. I'm wondering if they are caused by thyroiditis episodes. I have them about every 30 to 45 days and they all occur within a 24 hour period. I can have several partial seizures, what I call black outs, or grand mal seizures. I've always felt my seizures were caused by some kind of hormonal thing since they occur every 30 to 45 days. I usually know when I'm getting ready to have them because two days before I have restless sleep and in a very angry mood. Then the day I have them I start out crying over funny commercials. Any feedback on what you think would be great.
Donna
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Old 05-03-2010, 08:04 PM
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Wow! Thanks for the information. I have always thought I had a thyroid problem and finally my last blood work showed it was low. The dr then felt my neck and ordered a sonogram, I am awaiting the results as we speak. I have also read that thyroid problems, or any sort of cysts located anywhere on the body can cause behavioral/psycho-social variables which are correlated to seizures as well. Interesting, the more research I do, the more I realize how interconnected our entire system is. Also, many of the anti-seizure medications can cause low thyroid levels.
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Old 05-03-2010, 10:18 PM
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Donna - I notice that Rebecca was a bit irritable prior to a seizure. However, hormones will also make anyone grouchy and emotional. I have read but don't fully understand the tie between a liver that isn't functioning at its best, with insulin balance and an increase in estrogen. Throw in thyroid or adrenal fatigue and it becomes a problem for some.

Grateful - it is a good thing that your bloodwork drew a red flag. Rebecca's has never been off enough for anyone to raise an eyebrow. Yet the symptoms have been there.
It was my approach that even though hormones were out of balance, I kept asking myself why. Came down to liver numbers that were not the best, so I began working on ways to make it better. Starting with diet.

I think some anti seizure meds can be an issue with the liver and kidney. A viscious cycle. IMO
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Old 05-04-2010, 08:32 AM
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I've noticed that the symptoms of hypothyroidism are similar to side effects of Lamictal (hair loss, loss of libido, blurry vision, weight gain). I realize that not everyone has these side effects, and there may be other contributing factors (such as blood sugar issues), but I'd love to see a study examining long-term anti-epileptic drug use and hypothyroidism. I'd also be curious if a thyroid-related supplement such as Tyrosine would help counteract some of Lamictal's side effects.
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