Exploring the Gut-Brain Connection and Photosensitivity

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Keith

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Regarding "diarrhea as a type of seizure" I think that's what IBS-D is all about, spastic colon. But I believe the cause is more likely microbial imbalance, not the brain controlling the gut.

I've thought the reason fasting seems to halt seizure activity is simply via allowing the gut to rest, especially since intestinal innervation (nerve fibers and bundles) are the most extensive in the body. I didn't think it was about ketones and still don't, though I obviously have much to learn about ketones.

But there are also interesting dynamics regarding tryptophan and fasting. One of them is tryptophan levels in the pancreas rise during fasting and lower in serum. Apparently, tryptophan levels change quickly upon eating. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g527627x24378n42/?MUD=MP

And because tryptophan is the precursor for niacin, apparently niacin is released more efficienty during fasting:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4260741

Fasting also appears to induce significant increase in melatonin in both serum and gastrointestinal tract:
http://books.google.com/books?id=m_...Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=melatonin fasting&f=false

So, between pancreatic tryptophan, niacin and melatonin increased during fasting, there's improved glucose and lipid control along with antimicrobial and powerful antioxidant activity.

But how is serotonin (also a product of tryptophan) affected by fasting? It's depleted in fasting, apparently a good thing in the case of gut dysbiosis where too much serotonin is a problem. But fasting is said to increase serotonin levels in the brain and maybe that's a good thing. So, there's an inverse relationship in brain and gut serotonin during fasting.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1984.tb16495.x/abstract

There's a growing science behind the practice of intermittent fasting (IF) and several variants of the diet. The one I think makes sense is allowing oneself a daily eight hour eating window, i.e., noon-8pm.

Some nice IF references here associated with brain health:
http://healthyagingreview.com/featured/does-fasting-decrease-aging

Please accept what I'm saying here "with a grain of salt" as I'm really just learning aloud . . . here's a brand new paper released last week stating "gut-derived serotonin" is increased during fasting which leads to better fat absorbtion (I've read fat malabsorption is the real cause of gut symptoms in Celiac disease). They state this also leads to improved glucose regulation. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413112003981
 
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KarenB

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Well...with diarrhea, fasting is meant to rest the gut. But it also does put you into ketosis. Some hospitals put kids on a half day or whole day fast at the initiation of the Ketogenic diet, but most have moved away from this, because it's hard on the kids -- tends to cause too big a drop in blood sugar -- that sort of thing. But...in Jon's case, it probably had the dual effect of resting his gut, plus getting the Keto diet rebooted (he was almost out of ketosis when he was admitted -- apparently not absorbing the fats). That got his blood sugar down to optimal levels for Keto kids (between 65-75) and the seizures stopped. The fasting to reboot the Keto diet is a method that Dr. Kossof of Johns Hopkins sometimes uses with kids on the Keto diet when they have a relapse.

You'll be happy to know that I have a pot of chicken broth/gelatin going, and Jon has now had 2 doses. I chose chicken over beef or pork, because it's higher in fat, so he gets a better ratio.

We've been gradually adding in foods one at a time since the fast followed by formula -- to see if any specific foods are triggering diarrhea. Dairy doesn't seem to be a problem. Eggs may be...he had a little soft stool yesterday morning after having 2 meals with egg. So...we're leaving that out for several days to see what happens.

I haven't found anything to support my thoughts about seizures causing diarrhea - it's a long shot -- and probably the other way around for numerous reasons, but since vomiting is part of one type of photosensitive seizures, and also because gastrointestinal upset are often associated with seizure auras (which are apparently simple partial seizures), it just got me wondering.

With regard to calcium blockers...still trying to figure that all out, and haven't had time to do any reading...but...calcium can cause calcifications on the brain, which may be associated with seizures...so...is that why calcium channel blockers work? I think Zonegran is a channel blocker or somehow inhibits calcium (and sodium) to brain.
 

KarenB

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That's fascinating stuff you found about how fasting affects typtophan, melatonin, and seratonin.

AND especially the study about fasting and the serotin levels and fat absorbtion and glucose regulation.

Maybe we should try intermittent fasting with Jon when seizures are increasing -- that would give the gut a rest, help with ketosis, and also apparently his fat absorbtion and glucose regulation.

We were also thinking about going the other way -- smaller, more frequent meals -- because it seems to calm him when he gets into these hyperactive frenzies (that sometimes precede a seizure) -- lots to think about.
 

Keith

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I'm not sure the homemade chicken gelatin would have the same powerful mechanical effect that the beef manufactured gelatin powder offers. The powder we've used is fat free and made from just cattle hides. Other types are made from bone, as well. Maybe if you can concentrate the gelatin from chicken bones it would be good, however, I've read chicken bones may be more susceptible to contaminants such as fluoride, so maybe not a good choice of gelatin source for that reason alone. It might be a good idea to try the store bought beef gelatin; certainly a lot more convenient and it's nutritious. Can always use both types; chicken soup is good stuff. Copper is another potential concern with homemade broth. Also, I don't know the difference in glycine and alanine content, it may be significant. But my gut level is telling me the most important aspect is absorption quality, the temporary mechanical effect. Also, I don't believe gelatin is a cure for gut dysbiosis, just a band-aid. It may help both good and bad microbes grow, I'm not sure. All I know is it's halted seizure clusters to one seizure, I think via toxin absorption. It's like sending in a blanket putting everything in slow motion.

With calcium channel blockers the mechanism is to increase intracellular calcium which acts as a signaling mechanism for the immune system: increasing macrophage activity. The idea is to boost innate immunity.
http://www.jimmunol.org/content/146/1/217.abstract


Calcification (plaque) in brain, joints, glands and arteries is another matter, perhaps stemming from poor absorption of calcium, toxicity from biounavailable calcium (free calcium?). Vitamin D is required for calcium absorption, that's why so many people are taking it as it's an immune booster via calcium. But the kicker is zinc is required for vitamin D absorption. Zinc deficiency is a global problem. A zinc molecule is required at the base of the vitamin D receptor. Zinc picolinate is supposed to be best for systemic availability and easiest on the gut. It takes a couple months of zinc supplementation to balance copper levels, allowing copper to do its job balancing flora and lowering inflammation.
http://www.zincsaveskids.org/

Boron deficiency is related as boron somehow modulates vitamin D. Boron and zinc also are powerful antimicrobials.

There's also controversial science still being proven where microbes transmute/transfect silica to calcium, possibly leading to silica deficiency and calcification, i.e., amyloid plaque in the brain. Nattokinase may be a potential tool for dissolving plaque. Copper and iron brain deposition is also seen, another matter of intestinal malabsorption syndrome in my view. Aluminum deposition in the brain may be associated with silica deficiency as silica would normally bind with aluminum and remove it safely from the body.
 
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Keith

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Another thing to reconsider, as I've mentioned this previously, is hyaluronic acid (HA) which is produced by microbes in the gut, at least in a balanced gut where imbalance leads to degradation via microbial enzyme, hyaluronidase, also a factor in the brain.

HA is similar in mechanical effect to gelatin in the gut, but not as powerful in that way, yet has much broader implication. It's 80% of the fluid in eyes, coats nerves (?), hydrates the entire body . . . it's good at bedtime as it will make a person tired. People stop taking it because when they take it during the day they get too sleepy. I think selenium is also good at bedtime, also calming.

Brain function:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899394914486
Activates L-Dopa via tyrosine hydroxylase activation:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...sCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
L-Dopa impairment in epilepsy:
http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/46/3/540.long

Degradation of HA in eyes is implicated in optic neuritis, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy . . . because a crucial membrane (trabecular meshwork) in the eye becomes damaged and cannot drain properly, so intraocular pressure (IOP) builds, squeezing/damaging the optic nerve. This is the gut-eye connection.
http://www.ijo.in/article.asp?issn=...8;issue=3;spage=57;epage=59;aulast=Kesavachar
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15870607
www.iovs.org/content/37/7/1360.full.pdf

Interesting paper, though I can't locate the original, shows a calcium channel blocker, Verapamil, with broad application increasing HA synthesis in eyes:
http://www.medical-res-papers.com/ophthalmology-papers/1313
Note: Verapamil is used post abdominal surgery to reduce/prevent adhesions (scars) where such adhesions within intestinal lymphatic tissue (Peyer's Patches) have been implicated in seizure activity (including decades ago by Edgar Cayce; fascinating, albeit controversial history) as this part of the body contains the most extensive innervation of the entire body, prone to abdominal irritation causing seizure. Is the calcium channel blocker increasing intracellular calcium stimulating macrophage activity causing microbes to produce more HA in self-defense?

It's a shame now epidemic glaucoma causing irreversible blindness is still such a mystery to modern science in disregard of microbial cause. Science itself is caught in the headlights.
 
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KarenB

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Well, after going 5 days without diarrhea, Jon had another sudden bout last night. We're now thinking there may be some food sensitivities/allergies. We had considered this before, and eliminated dairy for awhile, but it didn't seem to make a difference. I should note that Jon's sister had severe allergies as an infant & young child to dairy, eggs, soy, and peanuts, but hers was quite obvious as she would break out in hives around her mouth immediately after consuming a food to which she was allergic, and begin having problems breathing.

We had suspected a gluten sensitivity, as Jon had chronic diarrhea prior to initiating the Ketogenic diet (which eliminated gluten), and then for the first year of being on the diet, he had no diarrhea except once when he was on antibiotics and another time when he had a stomach virus. But perhaps he's now developed some sensitivities to certain foods. I say this because when he was in the hospital, they put him on a fast, and then just the Ketocal formula for 2 days, and then we gradually added in foods, one at a time. The dairy products seem ok, and carrots and avocado and star fruit (which is supposed to be really good for diarrhea) were all tolerated well, along with chicken. But we're now suspicious of egg and fish. He had a little soft stool a couple days ago, after 2 meals with egg, so we removed that for a little while, and then yesterday he had tuna for lunch, which was the only "new" food. So, we're going to remove that for now. We'll stick with his current diet for several days, and if all is going well, reintroduce the egg and see what happens, then do the same with fish.

Keith, I believe you mentioned that microbial imbalance can trigger autoimmune response? Or someone did. Isn't an allergy or food sensitivity a kind of autoimmune response? Jon was not previously allergic to either egg or fish -- he ate egg almost every day, and also quite a bit of fish, especially when we were living on the island.

I wonder if there's any studies out there on food sensitivities and photosensitive seizures?
 

Nakamova

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There's definitely an autoimmune aspect of food sensitivities -- undigested food particles can leak across the intestinal wall and be perceived as ‘foreign invaders’ by the immune system. This in turn can trigger an antibody and histamine response.

I don't know about a connection between food sensitivities and photosensitivity, but there may be a connection to the Zonisamide. It's a sulfa drug, and sulfa drugs (among others) contain photoreactive agents that can cause chemical photosensitivity.
 

Keith

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Karen, that sounds like a good idea for a study, probably hard to find, but here's one about magnesium deficiency which is associated with food allergy, i.e., gluten intolerance:
http://journals.prous.com/journals/....xml_summaryn_pr?p_JournalId=6&p_RefId=948880

Mineral deficiency is a hallmark of gut dysbiosis (malabsorption syndrome) associated with allergy. Zinc deficiency and allergy is known to include diarrhea:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15801253
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/5/1388S.long
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299997014167 (zinc inhibits nitric oxide via lipopolysaccharides which are microbial endotoxins causing hypothalamic inflammation; nitric oxide is also implicated )

Above study possibly related to gram-negative rods and archaea in production of nitric oxide synthase and hylaluronic acid where tryosine hydroxylase activates L-Dopa: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10641963.2012.665542
(the case for propolis to balance flora, it's powerful stuff.)

Zinc is also known to help with asthma:
(zinc-carnosine is a very popular supplement, especially in Japan, used for intestinal inflammation, helping resolve the gut permeability problem Nakamova talks about above)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856764/

I've never said it before, but I do believe gut dysbiosis is the origin of (the same as) autoimmunity and metabolic syndrome. All of them are very general catch phrases for the same thing. And IBD is the general term for all gut diseases. It's what a doctor diagnoses when they don't know what the actual cause is, but they see intestinal inflammation . . . similar to the term epilepsy itself.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156250/
http://metabolichealing.com/key-int...ole-of-gut-function-in-autoimmune-conditions/

Translocation of gut flora via "leaky gut" or the intestinal lymphatic system (Peyer's Patches) is a cause of sepsis, often associated with radiation poisoning where the immune system is compromised, i.e., low white blood cells (neutropenia). Sepsis and antibiotics have been studied in newborns as cause of asthma and skin conditions:
https://epilab.ich.ucl.ac.uk/course...files/asthma OR and side-side for results.pdf
 
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KarenB

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Thanks, Nakamova, for the informative post. I did go back to check Jon's seizure log to see if he was having photosensitive seizures prior to taking Zonegran, and yes, he did have at least 3 seizures while watching TV before starting Zonegran (at that point, he wasn't on any meds -- just Keto diet). Those seizures were notable, because they were in the daytime, and he very rarely had daytime seizures until 3 months ago. I think that's also when the photosensitive seizures started.

His photosensitive seizures (triggered by TV, light reflecting off water, bright lights -- not flickering -- just very bright -- he stares at it) -- got very bad about 3 weeks ago, and then did seem to ease off after he started Keppra. He continued to have seizures, but apparently not triggered by flickering lights.

I wonder if a person can have more than one type of epilepsy? Jonathan seems to have 3 types of seizures:
1) tonic-clonics, that are usually nocturnal, and these are really scary, but fairly easily controlled by even a very low dose of Zonegran (he hasn't had one since he started Zonegran over 2 months ago). These seem to come on without warning (no aura), but they seem to be triggered by cold (after swimming in cold water or being in a cold wind, or maybe even getting too cold during the night).

2) Then he has recently developed these daytime tonic seizures that seem to be photosensitive triggered, or triggered by drinking cold water, and come on suddenly without warning (no aura). These seem to be controlled by Keppra (although we're also working hard to avoid the triggers -- cutting back on TV, and selecting programs that aren't too flashy, and giving him room temperature water (yuck!).

3) He also has another tonic seizure that is usually nocturnal or close to bedtime or soon after awakening. These are preceded by an aura -- he gets extremely restless and has characteristic behaviors for about 10 to 20 minutes before he has the seizures. These are the seizures that we can't seem to get under control.
 

KarenB

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Jon was doing very well with both seizure control and diarrhea after getting out of hospital. He was still having seizures, but they were about 45 hours apart -- not 2 or 3 a day as before. Then, 2 nights ago, he had one bout of diarrhea, and then last night (about 24 hours after the diarrhea), had 3 seizures -- that was quite a surprise, but there seems to be a definite link between gut health and his seizures -- whether malabsorbtion of meds and keto diet, or perhaps the gut problems are actually the cause of the seizures.
 

KarenB

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Keith - re magnesium deficiency -- we started Jon on magnesium supplements on Sept. 14. The immediate result was that his sleep was much improved. The seizures also reduced in the week or so after starting magnesium, but then they increased again.

He's been getting zinc in his supplements for years.

His white blood cells were normal in the hospital last week, but his leukocytes had doubled from 25 to 50 in one month. Perhaps from infection?
 

Keith

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Karen, I think a lot of supplements don't necessarily provide a therapeutic dose or the right form.

The nocturnal or soon after waking seizures are being studied/reevaluated regarding circadian rhythm (posted about that earlier). I've researched it regarding histamine excess of microbial origin, including the role of histamine in preparing eyes for daylight. I'm sure there's a lot more to it regarding early morning/night seizure where gut fermentation is a major factor. Eating soon before sleep is probably not a good thing. It's also connected to sleep and digestion as related to the parasympathetic nervous system . . .

Regarding your wondering about studies of food sensitivity and photosensitive seizure, I've just discovered something very interesting from a veterinary perspective: hepatogenous photosensitization and several studies regarding types of pasture leading to many familiar symptoms including convulsion. This pdf tells the story nicely:
www.ivis.org/advances/beasley/cpt10e/ivis.pdf
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-2000-0745.ch015
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1800956/

"The condition results when a toxin, whether produced by a higher plant, fungus or alga, causes liver damage or liver dysfunction . . . "

So, it's believed the food itself contains the toxin responsible, not taking into account how these plants such as Artemisia (which happens to be the world's most important antimalarial medication) affect flora in the liver.
 
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KarenB

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Those studies indicate photosensitive skin reactions after ingesting toxic plants -- is there a link between photosensitive skin issues and photosensitive seizures?

We have pretty much definitely identified egg as an allergen -- reintroduced it last night, with same results of GI distress. So...will remove that from his diet for time being. Interesting, because Jon ate egg for breakfast almost every day after initiating the Keto diet (prior to that he had yogurt and rice or corn porridge for breakfast), and for the first year he had no problem whatsoever with the egg -- no diarrhea and no seizures. So...this is an allergy (or intolerance) that has developed recently, within past 6 months.

I remember my mother developed food allergies when she was in her mid 30's -- to common foods like tomatoes and cinnamon -- she would break out all over in hives -- and then later they just went away, and she could eat whatever she wanted.

I checked his fasting blood sugar this morning and it was 85 -- fairly high for a kid on Keto diet (optimal readings for Keto kids are 65-75). I'm suspecting the egg intolerance as the culprit. Blood sugar levels can rise due to illness or other body stressors (including seizures). Recently acquired food intolerances may be the culprit for the high blood sugar readings for the past months, and perhaps the seizures as well. We'll let his gut rest for a couple days -- eating just the "safe" foods, then try out a couple other foods -- some of the veggies.

I just read a fascinating study done by Johns Hopkins and another study by Cornell with kids on the Ketogenic diet but on liquid formula only -- no solid food. It turns out these kids have astounding success with the diet -- 50 to 60% become seizure free or have 90% improvement - - compared to kids on the Ketogenic diet with solid foods (success rate is more like 10% seizure free, and 50% of the children have 50% reduction in seizures). They suggested a couple reasons -- one would obviously be the formula would be fool proof -- no mistakes in calculations or issues if child didn't eat a complete meal, etc. But they also think that the liquid formula diet is probably better absorbed and metabolized (also most better cholesterol rates with these kids).

I have a couple other suggested reasons:
1) the reason kids would be on a liquid diet is usually because they're infants (whose seizures are often caused by Dravet syndrome or severely disabled on a stomach tube from something like Lennox Gastaut or some similar childhood epilepsy -- and those types of epilepsies respond much better to the diet. Plus, Johns Hopkins uses the diet as first-line treatment now with babies having myoclonic spasms -- and there has historically been a better response rate when used as first-line treatment.

2) But...could it also be that the ingredients in the formula are uniform, and that children eating solid foods have a greater range of potential allergen sources?
 

KarenB

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Those studies indicate photosensitive skin reactions after ingesting toxic plants -- is there a link between photosensitive skin issues and photosensitive seizures?

We have pretty much definitely identified egg as an allergen -- reintroduced it last night, with same results of GI distress. So...will remove that from his diet for time being. Interesting, because Jon ate egg for breakfast almost every day after initiating the Keto diet (prior to that he had yogurt and rice or corn porridge for breakfast), and for the first year he had no problem whatsoever with the egg -- no diarrhea and no seizures. So...this is an allergy (or intolerance) that has developed recently, within past 6 months.

I remember my mother developed food allergies when she was in her mid 30's -- to common foods like tomatoes and cinnamon -- she would break out all over in hives -- and then later they just went away, and she could eat whatever she wanted.

I checked his fasting blood sugar this morning and it was 85 -- fairly high for a kid on Keto diet (optimal readings for Keto kids are 65-75). I'm suspecting the egg intolerance as the culprit. Blood sugar levels can rise due to illness or other body stressors (including seizures). Recently acquired food intolerances may be the culprit for the high blood sugar readings for the past months, and perhaps the seizures as well. We'll let his gut rest for a couple days -- eating just the "safe" foods, then try out a couple other foods -- some of the veggies.

I just read a fascinating study done by Johns Hopkins and another study by Cornell with kids on the Ketogenic diet but on liquid formula only -- no solid food. It turns out these kids have astounding success with the diet -- 50 to 60% become seizure free or have 90% improvement - - compared to kids on the Ketogenic diet with solid foods (success rate is more like 10% seizure free, and 50% of the children have 50% reduction in seizures). They suggested a couple reasons -- one would obviously be the formula would be fool proof -- no mistakes in calculations or issues if child didn't eat a complete meal, etc. But they also think that the liquid formula diet is probably better absorbed and metabolized (also most better cholesterol rates with these kids).

I have a couple other suggested reasons:
1) the reason kids would be on a liquid diet is usually because they're infants (whose seizures are often caused by Dravet syndrome or severely disabled on a stomach tube from something like Lennox Gastaut or some similar childhood epilepsy -- and those types of epilepsies respond much better to the diet. Plus, Johns Hopkins uses the diet as first-line treatment now with babies having myoclonic spasms -- and there has historically been a better response rate when used as first-line treatment.

2) But...could it also be that the ingredients in the formula are uniform, and that children eating solid foods have a greater range of potential allergen sources?
 

KarenB

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Food allergies & Seizures:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479881
Small study: 3 children with seizures of unknown cause (also with hyperactivity & sleep disorder) were given a dairy-free diet rather than AEDs. Behavior improved, and EEG anamolies disappeared.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329873
Case report of a 6 year old boy who's epilepsy was treated successfully with the Mod. Atkins diet, but developed a sudden anaphalactic reaction to egg AFTER having a strep infection. The boy had been eating a lot of egg previous to this reaction with no problem (the study said 10-15 eggs daily - that would be almost impossible -- probably should be 10-15 eggs a week??)
 

Nakamova

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Maybe if he was vegetarian he would have consumed that many eggs daily?
 

Keith

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Those studies indicate photosensitive skin reactions after ingesting toxic plants -- is there a link between photosensitive skin issues and photosensitive seizures?
The intestines. Check out the symptoms of egg allergy here which include abdominal pain and skin inflammation. This is now being called the gut-brain-skin axis:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/egg-allergy/DS01021/DSECTION=symptoms
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038963/ (2011 paper on gut-brain-skin axis)

There are a few good reasons for egg allergy in my view related to intestinal microbial imbalance. It may be similar to peanut allergy and carrot allergy. Gluten intolerance is another story related to villous atrophy.

Eggs contain some powerful aspects which may disturb microbes:
1) lysozyme in whites, antimicrobial reason raw egg whites are used in intestinal cleansing
2) biotin in yolk, feeds microbes, especially bacteria which then attack yeast where yeast may control immune response (yeast DNA strikingly similar to human DNA)
3) copper balance: sulfur in the yolk calls out (chelates) copper while albumin in the white carries copper making it bioavailable. Note: this may apply only to raw eggs as cooking denatures albumin, losing this function.

There's also the aspect of fat in yolk and fat malabsorption as cause of GI symptoms. For this reason, I wonder if leaving the yolk basically raw in cooking is better for digestion while cooking the whites (sunny-side up):
http://suite101.com/article/most-celiac-gastrointestinal-symptoms-due-to-fat-malabsorption-a233784
 
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Keith

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Those studies indicate photosensitive skin reactions after ingesting toxic plants -- is there a link between photosensitive skin issues and photosensitive seizures?
The intestines. Check out the symptoms of egg allergy here which include abdominal pain and skin inflammation. This is now being called the gut-brain-skin axis:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/egg-allergy/DS01021/DSECTION=symptoms
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038963/ (2011 paper on gut-brain-skin axis)

There are a few good reasons for egg allergy in my view related to intestinal microbial imbalance. It may be similar to peanut allergy and carrot allergy. Gluten intolerance is another story related to villous atrophy.

Eggs contain some powerful aspects which may disturb microbes:
1) lysozyme in whites, antimicrobial reason raw egg whites are used in intestinal cleansing
2) biotin in yolk, feeds microbes, especially bacteria which then attack yeast where yeast may control immune response (yeast DNA strikingly similar to human DNA)
3) copper balance: sulfur in the yolk calls out (chelates) copper while albumin in the white carries copper making it bioavailable. Note: this may apply only to raw eggs as cooking denatures albumin, losing this function.

There's also the aspect of fat in yolk and fat malabsorption as cause of GI symptoms. For this reason, I wonder if leaving the yolk basically raw in cooking is better for digestion while cooking the whites (sunny-side up):
http://suite101.com/article/most-celiac-gastrointestinal-symptoms-due-to-fat-malabsorption-a233784
 

Keith

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Is anyone here familiar with the drug Allopurinol? It's been studied for use in intractable epilepsy where the mechanism is believed to be about neuronal glutamate release:
http://www.arcmedres.com/article/S0188-4409(06)00405-X/abstract

But this drug has wide application, also known to kill protozoans such as leishmania, a global health problem thought to be vector-borne, but in the past few years evidence shows it's also transmitted vertically, meaning children may be born compromised. Leishmaniasis symptoms include seizure, neurological, skin, gastrointestinal and ocular problems.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679398/

I've recently learned TNF antagonists allow opportunistic leishmania infection, perhaps when these protozoans are already part of the body (latent). It's not about sandflies anymore.
 

Keith

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Is anyone here familiar with the drug Allopurinol? It's been studied for use in intractable epilepsy where the mechanism is believed to be about neuronal glutamate release:
http://www.arcmedres.com/article/S0188-4409(06)00405-X/abstract

But this drug has wide application, also known to kill protozoans such as leishmania, a global health problem thought to be vector-borne, but in the past few years evidence shows it's also transmitted vertically, meaning children may be born compromised. Leishmaniasis symptoms include seizure, neurological, skin, gastrointestinal and ocular problems.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679398/

I've recently learned TNF antagonists allow opportunistic leishmania infection, perhaps when these protozoans are already part of the body (latent). It's not about sandflies anymore.
 
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